Leaf-miner: A short gallery, frass dispersed in later part of mine (British
mostly at the upperside of the leaf, generally not far from the
leaf margin. Mine an initially narrow corridor with a thin frass
line, soon widening into a fairly long, broad corridor with a largely
broad frass line; locally the frass may be coiled. Often the first
part of the mine follows the leaf margin, entering the centre of
the leaf after a hairpin turn (Bladmineerders van Europa).
It is recommended that you try to rear out the adults to be certain of their identity.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is whitish-yellow, head pale brown (British
head light brown (Borkowski, 1972b); Gustafsson and van Nieukerken
(1990a) give a detailed description (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
The male genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: June - July, September - October (British
of year - adults: On the wing from May to June and in July and
in Great Britain & Ireland: The commonest of a complex of
similar species which have oak as a foodplant (UKMoths)
recorded in Anglesey (VC52), Banffshire (VC94), Bedfordshire (VC30), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Caernarvonshire (VC49),
Cambridgeshire (VC29), Carmarthenshire (VC44), Cheshire (VC58), Derbyshire (VC57), East Kent (VC15),
East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sutherland (VC107), Easterness (VC96), Elgin,
Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Isle of Wight (VC10), Kincardineshire (VC91), Mid-west Yorkshire (VC64), Middlesex (VC21), North Devon (VC4), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), North-west Yorkshire (VC65), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Essex (VC18), South Hampshire (VC11),
South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-east Yorkshire (VC61), Staffordshire (VC39),
Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Kent (VC16), West Lancashire (VC60), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Czech Republic, Danish mainland,
Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary,
Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland,
Russia - Central, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands
and Ukraine (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:
|Chrysocharis acoris (Walker, 1839)
|Chrysocharis budensis Erdös, 1954
|Chrysocharis prodice (Walker, 1839)
gemmeus Westwood, 1840
|Derostenus punctiscuta Thomson, 1878
diallus Walker, 1838
|| Eulophidae: Eulophinae
vittatus Walker, 1838
|| Eulophidae: Eulophinae
|Platyplectrus laeviscuta (Thomson, 1878)
|Seladerma aeneum (Walker, 1833)
stylata Förster, 1862
|Adelius subfasciatus Haliday, 1833
|Adelius erythronotus (Förster, 1851)
braconius Haliday, 1833
|Gnamptodon pumilio (Nees, 1834)