Leaf-miner: The first generation gallery is short, the second generation is
longer. The frass is in a narrow line (British
at he upper- or underside. The mine is a long, slender, not very
contorted corridor. In the first part the frass lies in a very narrow
line; later the frass may in rare cases lie more widely scattered,
but nowhere does it take more than 1/3 of the width of the gallery
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva whitish-yellow, head pale brown (this distinguishes
it from S. atricapitella which has a dark head) (British
head light brown (Huisman et al., 2001; Johansson et al., 1990a).
The light coloured head distinguishes the larva from the one of
atricapitella (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths by Rob Edmunds.
The male and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, September - October (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread inincluding Banffshire (VC94),
Bedfordshire (VC30), Cambridgeshire (VC29), East Cornwall (VC2), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27),
East Suffolk (VC25), East Sutherland (VC107), Elgin, Glamorganshire (VC41), Hertfordshire (VC20),
Huntingdonshire (VC31), Isle of Wight (VC10), Kincardineshire (VC91), Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35),
North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Ebudes (VC104), North Essex (VC19), North Wiltshire (VC7), Northamptonshire (VC32),
South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Devon (VC3), South Essex (VC18), South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Warwickshire (VC38), West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Finland, French
mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia,
Lithuania, Macedonia, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Russia - Central,
Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden,
Switzerland, The Netherlands and Ukraine. Also recorded in Near
East (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: