Leaf-miner: The initial gallery is narrow and is filled with red-brown coiled
frass. It then turns abruptly to form a blotch with a thin line
of blackish frass, which may be coiled or irregular (British
mostly at the underside of the leaf, generally close to the leaf
margin, sometimes on the petiole. The mine begins as a corridor
that usually follows the leaf margin. The frass here is warm brown
in colour and is indistinctly coiled. After a moult the larva starts
making an elongate blotch; generally its direction is opposite to
that of the initial corridor (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
larva is yellow with a pale brown head (British
leafminers; Emmet, 1983a; Gustafsson and van Nieukerken, 1990a;
Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Dissection Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: August - November (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Bedfordshire (VC30),
Breconshire (VC42), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50),
Derbyshire (VC57), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36),
Huntingdonshire (VC31), Isle of Wight (VC10), Middlesex (VC21), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12),
North Somerset (VC6), Northamptonshire (VC32), Shropshire (VC40), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39),
West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Corsica, Croatia, Czech Republic,
Danish mainland, Estonia, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian
mainland, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish
mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Ukraine. Also
recorded in East Palaearctic (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: