Leaf-miner: A contorted gallery filled with green frass (British
at the underside of the leaf, often close to a vein. The mine is
a corridor, running in several half or whole circles around the
oviposition site. Only the last segment breaks loose, and often
runs along the leaf margin. The frass is greenish, lying in coils
that are so wide as to almost completely fill the corridor (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is green (British
green. The larva is described by Gustafsson and van Nieukerken
(1990a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Dissection Group (check for update).
In the older literature also Crataegus and even Mespilus
are mentioned [as hosts]. This is surprising, because the mines
are so unmistakable (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, September - early October (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Carmarthenshire (VC44),
Dorset (VC9), East Cornwall (VC2), Herefordshire and West Kent (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, French
mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Macedonia, Republic of Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia
- Central, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands,
Ukraine and Yugoslavia (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: