Leaf-miner: A blotch mine is formed on the on leaf-lobe with central frass
blotch in the tip of a leaf segment, without any preceding corridor.
Frass in a central patch, pasted to the upper epidermis; when not
feeding the larva retreats here. Around the centre some more frass
grains are present, but not in an apparent spiral order. Oviposition
is at the underside of the leaf at about 1 mm from the leaf margin
(in Leucoptera malifoliella,
with which confusion might be possible, the egg is deposited well
away from the leaf margin) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Pale green; see Gustafsson and van Nieukerken (1990a) for a description
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Dissection Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: June - early July (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Bedfordshire (VC30),
Cambridgeshire (VC29), Derbyshire (VC57), Dorset (VC9), East Gloucestershire (VC33), Glamorganshire (VC41), Hertfordshire (VC20), North-west Yorkshire (VC65), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39),
Warwickshire (VC38), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, French mainland, Germany, Greek
mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Macedonia, Republic of Moldova,
Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia Central and East, Sardinia,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland and Ukraine. Also
recorded in East Palaearctic (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: