Leaf-miner: An early gallery filled with frass, later leaving clear margins,
finally a blotch (British
at the upper- or underside of the leaf, usually close to the midrib
or leaf margin. The mine is a somewhat widening corridor. Its course
is variable, but generally it contains several long, more or less
straight, segments. The black frass almost fills the first half
of the corridor. Later the frass line becomes relatively narrower,
and is more often interrupted. Pupation external, exit slit in the
upper epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Larva amber, head and faint ventral spots, brown (British
(Gustafsson and van Nieukerken, 1990a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
The male genitalia, but not the female genitalia
(check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: June - July, September - October (British
of year - adults: May and August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Bedfordshire (VC30),
Cambridgeshire (VC29), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), Haddington,
Herefordshire (VC36), Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12),
North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Shropshire (VC40), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39),
Surrey (VC17), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bulgaria, ? Corsica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland,
Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland,
Latvia, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland, ? Portuguese mainland,
Romania, Russia Central, Northwest and South, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine
and Yugoslavia. Also recored in East Palaearctic (Karsholt and
van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: