Leaf-miner: A contorted gallery leading to small blotch (British
at the leaf underside, usually near the midrib. Mine a contorted
gallery, often a secondary blotch. Leaf around the mine often turns
purple. Frass in a thick central line. Pupation external (Bladmineerders van Europa). The
mine is also illustrated in UKMoths.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is amber yellow, head brown (British
head light brown (Johansson et al., 1990a); Gustafsson and van
Nieukerken (1990a) give a detailed description (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, September - October (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: A relatively local species,
but hard to find and probably overlooked in many places due to its
upland bias. It has been found in England, Wales and Scotland, but
is scarce in the south-east (UKMoths)
including Banffshire (VC94), Bedfordshire (VC30), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Caernarvonshire (VC49),
Cheshire (VC58), Cumberland (VC70), Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57), East Perthshire (VC89), Kincardineshire (VC91),
Merionethshire (VC48), North Devon (VC4), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), Staffordshire (VC39),
West Ross and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
Gateway) and Ireland (UKMoths).
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland,
French mainland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland,
Poland, Russia - North, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands
and Ukraine (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: