at the underside of the leaf. The mine is a not very strongly contorted
corridor, also not limited to a small portion of the leaf, and usually
not forming a secondary blotch. Frass black. The frass line is very
narrow, especially in the first section of the mine. In the second
part the line may be broader, with the frass dispersed or indistinctly
coiled, but always the width of the frass remains less than a third
of the width of the corridor (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Bright green; see Gustafsson and van Nieukerken (1990a) and Schoorl
(1985a) for a description (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Dissection Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: June - July, August - September (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea). See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
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Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Belgium,
Bulgaria, Corsica, Crete, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland,
Dodecanese Is., French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary,
Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Republic
of Moldova, North Aegean Is., Poland, Romania, Sicily, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine and Yugoslavia.
Also recorded in Nearctic region (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: