Leaf-miner: A narrow gallery, tending to follow veins of leaf. The early part
with linear frass (British
at the underside of the leaf, mostly close to a vein. The mine is
a long, very slender corridor; even towards the end hardly wider
than necessary to accomodate the growing larva. Frass in a narrow
central line. The shape of the mine differs somewhat between the
hostplants. In Carpinus the mine closely follows a heavy
vein over a long distance; also the mine tends to be somewhat shorter
and broader, and the frass often lies in a more diffuse line. The
mines in Corylus are not so strictly defined by the venation
and the frass line is narrower (Emmet, 1983a; Johansson et al.,
1990a). Sometimes it is difficult to separate the mines from those
of S. floslactella ;
an additional difference then is that even in the very first part
of the corridor the frass of microtheriella lies in a narrow
line, while the frass of floslactella seems to fill the entire
corridor there. The pale golden larva lies venter-upwards in the
mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
there can be several larvae mining the same leaf (UKMoths).
The mine is illustrated in the Encyclopedia of Life.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is yellow, head pale brown (British
larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: End of June - July, September - November (British
of year - adults: May and again during August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread and common throughout
most of the British Isles (UKMoths)
including Anglesey (VC52), Banffshire (VC94), Bedfordshire (VC30), Breconshire (VC42), Buckinghamshire (VC24),
Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Carmarthenshire (VC44), Cheshire (VC58), Derbyshire (VC57),
East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sutherland (VC107), Flintshire (VC51),
Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Kincardineshire (VC91),
Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Devon (VC4), North Essex (VC19),
North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), Northamptonshire (VC32), Radnorshire (VC43),
Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Essex (VC18), South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17),
Warwickshire (VC38), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Lancashire (VC60), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Corsica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia,
Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian
mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Norwegian mainland, Poland,
Romania, Russia - Central and East, Sardinia, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine
and Yugoslavia. Also recorded in East Palaearctic (Karsholt and
van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:
|Chrysocharis amasis (Walker, 1839)
|Chrysocharis acoris (Walker, 1839)
gemmeus Westwood, 1840
|Derostenus punctiscuta Thomson, 1878
vittatus Walker, 1838
|| Eulophidae: Eulophinae
stylata Förster, 1862
|Adelius subfasciatus Haliday, 1833
braconius Haliday, 1833
|Mirax rufilabris Haliday, 1833
|Oncophanes minutus (Wesmael, 1838)