Leaf-miner: The mine is contorted, starting underside, frass linear (British
at the underside of the leaf, mostly close to a vein. The mine is
a fairly slender corridor that even towards the end hardly widens.
The first part consists of a some close loops around the oviposition
site; this part generally is lower-surface. The later part is much
less contorted, with a frass line that occupies one third to one
half the width of the gallery. The sides of the corridor are irregularly
scalloped out. Usually no more than one mine per leaf. Pupation
external, exit slit in the lower epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).
mine is also illustrated in UKMoths.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is yellow, gut-line green (British
yellow, head light brown; lies venter-upwards in the mine. See Gustafsson
and van Nieukerken (1990a) for a detailed description (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
The male but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: August - November (British
of year - adults: Adults flying from May to July (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Fairly common in mainland Britain
including Banffshire (VC94), Bedfordshire (VC30), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Caernarvonshire (VC49),
Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), Derbyshire (VC57), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sutherland (VC107), Easterness (VC96), Elgin, Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36),
Huntingdonshire (VC31), Kincardineshire (VC91), Middlesex (VC21), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Essex (VC19),
Northamptonshire (VC32), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belarus, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia,
Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia,
Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Russia Central, Russia North,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine,
Yugoslavia Also recorded in East Palaearctic (Karsholt and van
Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: