Leaf-miner: The mine is long, filled with green frass to ¼, then linear
generally at the underside of the leaf. The mine is a slender corridor
that hardly widens, even towards the end. The first third is stuffed
with diffuse greenish brown frass. After a moult the frass pattern
changes completely, into a very narrow, continuous black line. The
mine often follows a thick vein over a long distance, but the larva
is capable of crossing thick veins, even the midrib (Bladmineerders van Europa).
The mine is also illustrated in UKMoths.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is a greenish white, head brown (British
yellowish green, head dark; the larva lies venter-downwards in the
mine. See Gustafsson and van Nieukerken (1990a) for a detailed
description (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: Mid June - early July (British
of year - adults: Single-generation on the wing in May (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Fairly common throughout the
British Isles (UKMoths)
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29),
Carmarthenshire (VC44), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57), East Kent (VC15),
East Norfolk (VC27), East Ross (VC106), East Suffolk (VC25), Easterness (VC96), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36),
Huntingdonshire (VC31), Kincardineshire (VC91), Mid-west Yorkshire (VC64), Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35),
North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Devon (VC4), North Ebudes (VC104), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12),
North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Northamptonshire (VC32), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-east Yorkshire (VC61), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38),
West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Lancashire (VC60), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland,
French mainland, Germany, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norwegian
mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia - Central,
North and Northwest, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, The
Netherlands and Yugoslavia. Also
recorded in East Palaearctic (Karsholt and van Nieukerken Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: