Leaf-miner: The frass linear in early gallery, widening to blotch with dispersed
at random point of the leaf, either at upper- or lower-surface.
First a quite slender corridor is made, with a relatively broad,
continuous, frass line, that always leaves a clear margin at either
side; the corridor winds freely through the leaf. This initial corridor
often abruptly changes in direction, widens into a blotch that mostly
lie along the leaf margin. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is whitish (British
by Gustafsson and van Nieukerken (1990a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: End of May-June, August-September (British
of year - adults: April and May and July and August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Common throughout the British
including Ayrshire (VC74), Bedfordshire (VC30), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Caernarvonshire (VC49),
Cambridgeshire (VC29), Carmarthenshire (VC44), Cheshire (VC58),
Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57), East Gloucestershire (VC33), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Ross (VC106), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20),
Huntingdonshire (VC31), Kincardineshire (VC91), Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Aberdeenshire (VC93),
North Devon (VC4), North Ebudes (VC104), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6),
North Wiltshire (VC7), Pembrokeshire (VC45), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Essex (VC18), South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39),
Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Cornwall (VC1), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Lancashire (VC60), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and
Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Corsica, Croatia, Czech
Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany,
Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Republic
of Moldova, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania,
Romania, Russia - Central and East, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish
mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine and Yugoslavia.
Also recorded in East Palaearctic and Near East (Karsholt and
van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: