Leaf-miner: The larvae mine the leaves of hawthorn, creating a gallery which
begins narrowly with black linear frass. The mine then widens, and
the frass is laid in distinct arcs, finally becoming irregular and
central near the end (UKMoths).
at the underside of the leaf, often close to a vein; occasionally
on the petiole. The mine is a corridor. In its first part the frass
lies in a central line, later is is clearly coiled. The corridor
makes some sharp hairpin turns, while the loops remain so close
together that usually a secondary blotch is the result. The mine
can cross lateral veins (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is green (British
green, head almost colourless. Described by Gustafsson and van
Nieukerken (1990a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Dissection Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: End June - early August (British
of year - adults: Single generation. The adults are on the wing
in May and June (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Common throughout the British
including Anglesey (VC52), Banffshire (VC94), Bedfordshire (VC30), Breconshire (VC42), Buckinghamshire (VC24),
Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Carmarthenshire (VC44), Denbighshire (VC50),
Derbyshire (VC57), East Gloucestershire (VC33), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Kincardineshire (VC91),
Leicestershire (VC55), Mid-west Yorkshire (VC64), Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Devon (VC4), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7),
North-west Yorkshire (VC65), Northamptonshire (VC32), South Northumberland (VC67), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Essex (VC18), South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8),
Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16),
West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French
mainland, Germany, ? Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland,
Lithuania, Macedonia, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands.
recorded in East Palaearctic and Near East (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: