Leaf-miner: The mine starts from brown spot, later filled with greenish
frass. The mine is difficult to locate initially but becomes brown
as it ages (British
at the underside, often in a vein axil. The mine is a slender, little
widening corridor. Its first part is strongly contorted; the leaf
tissue that is cut off thereby is killed, mostly resulting in a
brown spot. The remainder of the corridor in contrast is very little
contorted, often remarkably straight, when it runs alongside a vein.
The corridor is almost completely filled with coiled frass, that
is green when fresh, brown later. Pupation external (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is yellow but appears green in mine (British
larva is yellow, but appears green when inside the mine. See Gustafsson
and van Nieukerken (1990a) for a description (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The male genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: June - July, September - October (British
of year - adults: On the wing in May and August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Occurring in southern and north-west
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Carmarthenshire (VC44),
Cheshire (VC58), Derbyshire (VC57), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), Northamptonshire (VC32), Shropshire (VC40), South Lancashire (VC59),
South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French
mainland, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Russia Central, Sweden,
Switzerland, The Netherlands and Ukraine. Also recorded in East
Palaearctic (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.