Leaf-miner: The mine is short, with frass irregular, linear. The larva is yellow,
gut-line green, and dark ventral spots. There are often several
mines in a leaf. The mines are found frequently on seedlings and
small plants (British
at the underside of the leaf, close to a vein. The mine is a little
widening, rather short, tortuous corridor. The first part does not
encircle the egg, neither is it lower-surface.The frass line is
one third to one half of the width of the corridor. The sides of
the corridor are smooth, not scalloped out. Mostly several mines
in a leaf, not infrequently crossing each other. Pupation external,
exit slit in the lower epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is bright yellow with a yellowish brown head and a brown spot on the prothorax. The ganglia of the ventral nervous system are conspicuous. SCS Brown (1947a) and Gustafsson and van Nieukerken (1990a) give a description of the larva (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, September - early November (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Bedfordshire (VC30),
Buckinghamshire (VC24), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50),
East Kent (VC15), East Ross (VC106), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sussex (VC14), East Sutherland (VC107),
Forfar, Glamorganshire (VC41), Middlesex (VC21), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39),
West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland,
French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania,
Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central, East and
Northwest, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands,
Ukraine and Yugoslavia. Also recorded in East Palaearctic (Karsholt
and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:
|Achrysocharoides niveipes (Thomson, 1878)
|Chrysocharis amasis (Walker, 1839)
|Chrysocharis acoris (Walker, 1839)
|Chrysocharis budensis Erdös, 1954
|Derostenus punctiscuta Thomson, 1878
vittatus Walker, 1838
|| Eulophidae: Eulophinae
|Adelius subfasciatus Haliday, 1833
|Gnamptodon decoris (Förster, 1862)
|Gnamptodon pumilio (Nees, 1834)
|Mirax rufilabris Haliday, 1833