Leaf-miner: The initial gallery has clear margins, with broken linear frass.
The later mine is a blotch formed by many turns (British
at the leaf upper surface. Mine a densely winding corridor, later
sections strongly widened, almost forming a secondary blotch. Frass
in a more or less continuous central band that, even in the narrow
initial part, never completely fills the corridor (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The golden yellow larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The male
and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: August - October (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Bedfordshire (VC30),
Buckinghamshire (VC24), Cambridgeshire (VC29), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25),
East Sutherland (VC107), Herefordshire (VC36), Middlesex (VC21), North Essex (VC19), South Aberdeenshire (VC92),
South Hampshire (VC11), South Wiltshire (VC8), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia,
Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia,
Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central
and East, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland,
The Netherlands, Ukraine and Yugoslavia. Also recorded in East Palaearctic
(Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: