the larva mines a basal leaf, subsequently feeding in flower buds
(which turn yellow), opened flowers and foliage (UKMoths).
depth irregular blotch that may occupy an entire leaf. Frass in
numerous, dispersed, brown grains. Some larvae remain in the mine
until shortly before pupation, others leave the mine in an early
stage and feed externally on the flower buds and developing fruits
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The camouflaged larvae vary from green to brownish yellow (UKMoths).
larva is also illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa. The slender green or red pupa is attached to the foodplant (UKMoths).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths
(by Chris Manley) and the Encyclopedia
of Life. The male
and female genitalia, are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: Two or more generations from June to October
or later. It is uncertain which stage (s) overwinter (UKMoths).
of year - adults: The adult can be found from July to September
in two or more overlapping broods. It generally flies from dusk
onwards, but it can be disturbed from low herbage in the daytime.
It can easily be mistaken for a faded specimen of the common Stenoptilia
bipunctidactyla, so moths taken near large amounts of the foodplants
should be examined closely (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widely distributed in southern
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), East Gloucestershire (VC33),
East Kent (VC15), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sussex (VC14), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36),
North Essex (VC19), North Somerset (VC6), Pembrokeshire (VC45), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), West Cornwall (VC1), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Suffolk (VC26) and
Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
locally restricted to sparsely vegetated habitats, such as sea-cliffs,
sand hills, old sand and gravel workings and chalky or dry pastures,
where its foodplants grow in quantity and the moth may be abundant
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Andorra, Austria, Azores, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria,
Corsica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Finland,
French mainland, Germany, Gibraltar, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian
mainland, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, North Aegean Is., Poland,
Portuguese mainland, Romania, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Yugoslavia
(Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.