Leaf-miner: Larvae usually feed on the underside of a fern frond under an untidy
mass of sporangia, but on occasion enter the leaf to make an extensive
irregular blotch mine (British
the larva lives free under the leaf, under an inrregular mass of
spun soredia and frass. The larva feeds on the sori, and larva betrays
its presence as a sorus on an unusual place. Sometimes also elongate
full depth blotches are made (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Yellowish wthite; anal shield colourless, head and prothoracic shield
very pale brown with somewhat darker lateral and posterior margins
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Phyllitis scolopendrium is treated as Asplenium
scolopendrium (Hart's-tongue) by Stace (2010).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: Appears to be continuosly brooded, as larvae
have been found in all months of the year (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Initially occurred mainly near
coasts, but it is increasingly recorded inland (British
leafminers) including Anglesey (VC52), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Carmarthenshire (VC44),
East Cornwall (VC2), Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41), Merionethshire (VC48), North Devon (VC4),
North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), South Devon (VC3), South Hampshire (VC11), South Wiltshire (VC8), West Cornwall (VC1), West Gloucestershire (VC34) and Westmorland (NBN
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elsewhere: Outside of Britain & Ireland only recorded in Madeira
(Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.