Leaf-miner: As a smaller larva it mines a leaf, but feeds on the buds of
ash in its later stages (UKMoths).
late autumn the larvae make an irregular small corridor with dispersed
black frass. Often the corridor widens in the end into an irregular
blotch with much less frass. The mine may begin at an egg shell
(lower picture), but the larvae can leave their mine an start a
new one elsewhere in the leaf; in that case the corridor begins
with a small round opening. Before the leaf is shed the larva leaves
the mine and bores into the bark, where it hibernates. After hibernation
they live as shoot borer, of free among spun leaves (Bladmineerders van Europa).
larva mines the bark of a twig and overwinters in this. In spring
it bores out the terminal shoot - causing it to droop (British
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is yellowish, with a black prothoracic and anal plate
leafminers). The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Illustrated and described by Patočka (1997a), Patočka and Turčáni (2005a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths and the Encyclopedia
of Life. The male
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
The species is also reported from Daphne, but is is not really
clear whether this concerns a regular relationship.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae:
October - June ((British
leafminers); October (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults: The adult is on the wing from June to July,
although a plainer, darker form is often found into August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: A common species over much of
Bedfordshire (VC30), Breconshire (VC42), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58),
Cumberland (VC70), Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57), East Cornwall (VC2), East Gloucestershire (VC33),
East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Easterness (VC96), Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41),
Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Kincardineshire (VC91), Leicestershire (VC55),
Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Essex (VC19), North Somerset (VC6),
North Wiltshire (VC7), Pembrokeshire (VC45), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Devon (VC3), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38),
West Cornwall (VC1), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Lancashire (VC60),
West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
Gateway), and the Channel Is. (Karsholt
and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland,
Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland,
Kaliningrad Region, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg,
Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia
- Central, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland and The
Netherlands (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: