Leaf-miner: The mine is usually underside, often twisting leaf into a cone
leafminers). The mines can be quite abundant where it is found
surface tentiform mine between leaf margin and midrib; the mine
contracts diagonally, causing the leaf to roll transversely or into
a pepper box (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The cremaster is illustrated in British
leafminers and Bladmineerders van Europa.
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths and the Encyclopedia
of Life. The male
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: March - April, July - August, October (British
of year - adults: Unusual among Phyllonorycter species
in having three generations, with adults on the wing in November,
as well as the usual May and August periods (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: A common and widespread species
throughout the British Isles (UKMoths)
including Anglesey (VC52), Bedfordshire (VC30), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Carmarthenshire (VC44),
Cheshire (VC58), Derbyshire (VC57), East Cornwall (VC2), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sussex (VC14), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31),
Merionethshire (VC48), Middlesex (VC21), North Devon (VC4), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12),
North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Devon (VC3), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Cornwall (VC1),
West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Lancashire (VC60), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Corsica, Danish mainland, Dodecanese Is., French mainland,
Germany, Italian mainland, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Norwegian mainland,
Poland, Portuguese mainland, Russia - Central, Sardinia, Spanish
mainland, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands (Karsholt and
van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: