Leaf-miner: The lower surface of the mine can have small creases and appear
surface oval tentiform mine, without a fixed position on the leaf.
The mine is yellowish, sometimes tinged with red; black when old.
Frass stacked in one corner of the mine, the almost black pupa,
in a very flimsy cocoon, in the other (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The cremaster is illustrated in British
leafminers. The pupa is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths by Martin Kennard.The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Dissection Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: June; August-October (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: A rare miner in the UK, discovered
in 1977 in Gloucestershire (British
leafminers) and subsequently recorded from Caernarvonshire (VC49),
Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50), Flintshire and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland,
French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central,
East, North, Northwest and South, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland,
The Netherlands and Ukraine. Also present in East Palaearctic and
Near East (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: