The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phyllonorycter quercifoliella (Zeller, 1839)
[Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae]

Common Oak Midget


Lithocolletis quercifoliella Zeller, 1839. Isis: 217.
Phyllonorycter quercifoliella
(Zeller, 1839).


Leaf-miner: The mine is medium (>10mm) or large, single crease in lower epidermis. The frass surrounds cocoon in summer, but in U-shaped lining in autumn (British leafminers).

Lower surface tentiform mine, variable in size, (10)-15-(22) mm. Lower epidermis with one sharp fold. Pupa in a tough silken cocoon in the mine. In the summer generation the cocoon is entirely covered with frass, and the cocoon is attached to the roof of the mine only. In the autumn generation frass in incrusted only to the sides and rear of the cocoon, and the cocoon is attached both to the roof and the floor of the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The mine is also illustrated in UKMoths.

Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).

Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).

The cremaster is illustrated in British leafminers and Bladmineerders van Europa.

Adult: The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male and female genitalia, are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Fagaceae        
Quercus       British leafminers
Quercus       UKMoths
Quercus petraea Sessile Oak British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Quercus robur Pedunculate Oak British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant
Quercus rubra Red Oak British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant

Hosts elsewhere:

Fagaceae        
Quercus cerris Turkey Oak British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Quercus faginea     Bladmineerders van Europa
Quercus libani     Bladmineerders van Europa
Quercus petraea Sessile Oak British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Quercus robur Pedunculate Oak British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Quercus trojana     Bladmineerders van Europa
Quercus x turneri     Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - larvae: July, September - October (British leafminers).

Time of year - adults: The moths are on the wing in April and May, and again in August and September (UKMoths).

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Probably the commonest of the oak-feeding Phyllonorycters, this species is frequent throughout most of the British Isles (UKMoths) including Anglesey (VC52), Banffshire (VC94), Bedfordshire (VC30), Breconshire (VC42), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), Derbyshire (VC57), East Cornwall (VC2), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Ross (VC106), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sussex (VC14), East Sutherland (VC107), Elgin, Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Kincardineshire (VC91), Merionethshire (VC48), Mid-west Yorkshire (VC64), Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35), Montgomeryshire (VC47), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Devon (VC4), North Ebudes (VC104), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), North-west Yorkshire (VC65), Radnorshire (VC43), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Devon (VC3), South Essex (VC18), South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-east Yorkshire (VC61), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire and West Gloucestershire (NBN Gateway), the Channel Is.

See also British leafminers distribution map.

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.

NBN Grid Map:

NBN Grid Map

Phyllonorycter quercifoliella
NBN Grid Map : NBN Terms and Conditions

Maps are only displayed if the NBN server is active. N.B. Only publicly available records, if any, are shown by default

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Dodecanese Is., Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Republic of Moldova, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia - Central, Northwest and South, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Ukraine. Also recorded in Near East and North Africa (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:

Quercus cerris, Quercus petraea, Quercus robur, Quercus rubra, Quercus x turneri

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea  
Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman, 1820) Encyrtidae: Encyrtinae
Achrysocharoides cilla (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Achrysocharoides latreillii (Curtis, 1826) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Achrysocharoides splendens (Delucchi, 1954) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis elongata (Thomson, 1878) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis laomedon (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis nephereus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis phryne (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Closterocerus trifasciatus Westwood, 1833 Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Pediobius alcaeus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cirrospilus diallus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Cirrospilus lyncus Walker, 1841 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Cirrospilus viticola (Rondani, 1877) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Pnigalio agraules (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Pnigalio longulus (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Sympiesis gordius (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Coloneura stylata Förster, 1862 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Colastes braconius Haliday, 1833 Braconidae: Exothecinae
Shawiana catenator (Haliday, 1836) Braconidae: Exothecinae
Pholetesor circumscriptus (Nees, 1834) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Rhysipolis hariolator (Haliday, 1836) Braconidae: Rhysipolinae
Gelis agilis (Fabricius, 1775) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Itoplectis alternans (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae
Scambus inanis (Schrank, 1802) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae


External links: Search the internet:
Belgian Lepidoptera
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Gateway
NHM UK Checklist
UKMoths
Find using Google
Find using Google Scholar
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Last updated 19-Sep-2016  Brian Pitkin Top of page