Leaf-miner: The mine is often in the lobe of the leaf. There are many creases
in lower epidermis, which is strongly contracted, causing lobe or
leaf-edge to fold over (British
small, lower-surface, tentiform mine with a yellow-green epidermis
that has a number of folds. Pupation within the mine. The pupa of
the summer generation in a quite flimsy cocoon; in the autumn generation
there is more, golden, silk. All frass in a clump in the distal
angle of the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
mine is also illustrated in UKMoths.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The pupa is illustrated in British
leafminers and Bladmineerders van Europa.
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, September - October (British
of year - adults: Two generations, producing adults in May and
in August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: A common species throughout
most of the British Isles (UKMoths)
including Anglesey (VC52), Ayrshire (VC74), Banffshire (VC94), Bedfordshire (VC30), Breconshire (VC42), Buckinghamshire (VC24),
Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Carmarthenshire (VC44), Cheshire (VC58), Derbyshire (VC57),
East Gloucestershire (VC33), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sussex (VC14), Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31),
Kincardineshire (VC91), Linlithgow, Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Aberdeenshire (VC93),
North Ebudes (VC104), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Devon (VC3), South Essex (VC18),
South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39),
Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Cornwall (VC1), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Lancashire (VC60), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and
Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt
and van Nieukerken.
See also Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Corsica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish
mainland, Estonia, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland,
Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norwegian mainland,
Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia - Central and South,
Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland,
The Netherlands and Ukraine. Also recorded in Near East (Karsholt
and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:
|Achrysocharoides atys (Walker, 1839)
|Chrysocharis laomedon (Walker, 1839)
|Chrysocharis nephereus (Walker, 1839)
|Chrysocharis phryne (Walker, 1839)
|Pediobius alcaeus (Walker, 1839)
lyncus Walker, 1841
|| Eulophidae: Eulophinae
vittatus Walker, 1838
|| Eulophidae: Eulophinae
|Sympiesis gordius (Walker, 1839)
stylata Förster, 1862
braconius Haliday, 1833
|Apanteles corvinus Reinhard, 1880
|Pholetesor arisba (Nixon, 1973)
|Pholetesor circumscriptus (Nees, 1834)
|Diadegma melanium (Thomson, 1887)
|Diadegma nanus (Gravenhorst, 1829)