Leaf-miner: The mine is 15-20 mm long with several creases in lower epidermis.
It is lower side, strongly arched; a central green patch with brown
flecks around edges (British
tentiform mine, usually between two side veins. Pupa in white cocoon
in a corner of the mine, attached to both the roof and the floor
of the mine; frass heaped in opposite corner (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The pupa is illustrated in British
leafminers and Bladmineerders van Europa.
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male
genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, September - October (British
of year - adults: Two generations, flying in May and August
in Great Britain & Ireland: Found throughout Britain (UKMoths)
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Breconshire (VC42), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50),
Derbyshire (VC57), East Cornwall (VC2), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25),
East Sussex (VC14), East Sutherland (VC107), Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Kincardineshire (VC91), Merionethshire (VC48), Middlesex (VC21),
Monmouthshire (VC35), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Ebudes (VC104), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92),
South Devon (VC3), South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8),
Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Lancashire (VC60),
West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westerness (VC97), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt
and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia,
Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia,
Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norwegian mainland,
Poland, Romania, Russia - Central and Northwest, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Ukraine
(Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:
|Achrysocharoides latreillii (Curtis, 1826)
|Achrysocharoides splendens (Delucchi, 1954)
|Chrysocharis nephereus (Walker, 1839)
|Pediobius alcaeus (Walker, 1839)
|Sympiesis gordius (Walker, 1839)
stylata Förster, 1862
braconius Haliday, 1833
|Pholetesor bicolor (Nees, 1834)
|Pholetesor circumscriptus (Nees, 1834)
|Pholetesor nanus (Reinhard, 1880)
|Rhysipolis hariolator (Haliday, 1836)
|Diadegma elishae (Bridgman, 1884)
|Scambus calobatus (Gravenhorst, 1829)
|Scambus inanis (Schrank, 1802)