yellow-green tentiform mine, 20-32 mm long, with a number of fine
folds in the lower epidermis. In most cases the mine is elongate,
situated between two lateral veins. The reddish to chestnut brown
pupa lies in a flimsy cocoon in which no frass is incorporated:
the frass is stored not in a clump but in a row of loose grains
behind the cocoon. Just before edcysis the pupa works itself out
of the mine through the lower wall; mostly the empty exuvium sticks
halfway out of the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Cremaster, similar to that of Ph. anceps, with two pairs
of short, stout spines, the outer one curved outwards, the inner
one inward; the outer spines about as long as wide at their base
(Gregor and Patocka, 2001a; Triberti, 2007a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, September - November (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Cambridgeshire (VC29),
East Kent (VC15), East Suffolk (VC25), Herefordshire (VC36), Huntingdonshire (VC31), South Wiltshire (VC8),
Surrey (VC17), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Lancashire (VC60), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Czech Republic, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian
mainland, Madeira, Poland, Romania, Russia - South, Sardinia, Sicily,
Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Ukraine.
Also recorded in Near East and Nearctic region (Karsholt and van
Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: