Leaf-miner: The mine is greater than 20 mm long, lower epidermis with one strong
crease often dividing in Y-shape at end near leaf-margin. There
can be several mines on a leaf. Tends to favour young seedlings
and saplings (British
large, lower-surface tentiform mine, usually between two side veins,
20-25 mm long. Lower epidermis with one sharp fold. Frass heaped
in a corner of the mine, covered by some spinning. Often several
mines in a, strongly contracted, leaf. Pupa brownish black in a
whitish cocoon (Bladmineerders van Europa).
mine is also illustrated in UKMoths.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Described by Emmet at al. 1985a (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The cremaster is illustrated in British
leafminers and Bladmineerders van Europa.
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
The male and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, September - October (British
of year - adults: May and August are the flight periods for
the two generations (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Locally common throughout Britain,
but more so in the south (UKMoths)
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Breconshire (VC42), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50),
Derbyshire (VC57), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Merionethshire (VC48),
North Devon (VC4), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Northamptonshire (VC32), Shropshire (VC40), South Devon (VC3), South Hampshire (VC11),
South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39),
West Kent (VC16), West Lancashire (VC60), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Ireland's NBDC interactive map).
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, European
Turkey, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary,
Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Norwegian mainland,
Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia - Central, East, Northwest
and South, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The
Netherlands and Ukraine. Also recorded in Near East (Karsholt and
van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: