Leaf-miner: The mine is underside, between veins, causing leaf to arch.
The lower epidermis is at first white, then brown (British
tentiform mine, white at first, later brown, between two side veins.
Pupa without a recognisable cocoon in the mine. Before ecdysis the
pupa works itself halfway out of the upperside of the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
mine is also illustrated in UKMoths.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The cremaster is illustrated in British
leafminers and Bladmineerders van Europa.
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths by Rob Edmunds. The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, September - April (British
leafminers), the second generation overwintering in this stage
of year - adults: There are two generations, with moths on the
wing in May and August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Occurs in the southern counties
of England and Wales, ranging north to Warwick (UKMoths)
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Cambridgeshire (VC29), East Kent (VC15), East Suffolk (VC25),
East Sussex (VC14), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6),
South Wiltshire (VC8), Surrey (VC17), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Corsica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, French
mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia
Central, Northwest and South, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Switzerland,
The Netherlands and Ukraine (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:
lyncus Walker, 1841
|| Eulophidae: Eulophinae
|Sympiesis acalle (Walker, 1848)
|Sympiesis gordius (Walker, 1839)
|Chrysocharis laomedon (Walker, 1839)
|Aprostocetus celtidis (Erdös, 1954)
|Baryscapus nigroviolaceus (Nees, 1834)
stylata Förster, 1862
braconius Haliday, 1833
|Cotesia notha (Marshall, 1885)
|Pholetesor bicolor (Nees, 1834)
|Pholetesor circumscriptus (Nees, 1834)
viminetorum (Wesmael, 1837)
|Encrateola laevigata (Ratzeburg, 1848)
|Itoplectis alternans (Gravenhorst, 1829)