The mine on the underside can cause the whole leaf to arch (British
are most often found on plants low down amongst the heather (UKMoths).
tentiform mine, that involves almost the entire leaf. The leaf margins
are strongly pulled together, arching the upper surface. Because
the leaf tissue of the roof of the mine is incompletely eaten away,
this upper surface has got a mottled appearance (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Body pale amber yellow, head light yellow brown (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).Body pale amber yellow, head light yellow brown (Bladmineerders van Europa)
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The female genitalia, but not the male genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, October-April (British
of year - adults: Mainly on the wing in June and July, although
in some areas it can be double-brooded, appearing again later in
the autumn (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: A species of higher ground,
particularly moorland, distributed in Wales and from the Midlands
northwards to much of Scotland (UKMoths)
including Banffshire (VC94), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cheshire (VC58), Derbyshire (VC57), East Perthshire (VC89),
Easterness (VC96), Elgin, Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41), Kincardineshire (VC91), Merionethshire (VC48),
North Aberdeenshire (VC93), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeen and Stafford (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia,
Finland, French mainland, Germany, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania,
Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central, East, North,
Northwest and South, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands
and Ukraine (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: