Leaf-miner: The leaf surface is often contorted. Can be confused with P.
large, lower-surface tentiform mine, mostly between two side veins.
The upperside is fairly strongly inflated. The underside has many
narrow folds, not easily seen because of the indumentum at the underside
of the leaf. Frass pakced in a corner of the mine. Neither mine,
cocoon nor pupa can be distinguished from those of Ph. dubitella
(Gregor and Patocka, 2001a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Pupa light brown in a tough, golden cocoon (Bladmineerders van Europa). The cremaster is illustrated in British
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
The male and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Primarily on Salix caprea. Hartig (1939a) adds Salix appendiculata (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, September-October (British
of year - adults: The species is bivoltine, with a flight period
in late May and June and again in August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: A common moth, found widespread
throughout Britain (UKMoths)
including Anglesey (VC52), Ayrshire (VC74), Banffshire (VC94), Bedfordshire (VC30), Caernarvonshire (VC49),
Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57), East Kent (VC15), East Ross (VC106), East Suffolk (VC25), Easterness (VC96), Elgin, Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36),
Huntingdonshire (VC31), Kincardineshire (VC91), Merionethshire (VC48), Middlesex (VC21), North Aberdeenshire (VC93),
North Devon (VC4), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Northamptonshire (VC32), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Hampshire (VC11),
South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39),
Surrey (VC17), West Cornwall (VC1), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Lancashire (VC60), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt
and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French
mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania,
Norwegian mainland, Poland, Russia - Central, East, North and Northwest,
Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands
and Ukraine. Also recorded in the East Palaearctic (Karsholt and
van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: