mine is less than 10 mm long, creases in lower epidermis small or
lower-surface tentiform mine, generally equals 10 mm in length.
Usually, though not always, situated near the leaf margin or in
a leaf lobe. Mines of the summer generation have one fine length
fold, those of the fall generation have a large number of quite
fine wrinkles. Pupa in a cocoon; The summer cocoon is small, white,
anchored to the floor and the ceiling of the mine, and has frass
incrusted along the sides. The autumn cocoon is larger, more delicate,
and completely free of frass, that may be heaped in a corner of
the mine or be more or less scattered (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Whitish with pale brown head (Emmet, Watkinson and Wilson, 1985a)
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The pupa illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa and just the cremaster in British
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, September - October (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in England including
Bedfordshire (VC30), Breconshire (VC42), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Carmarthenshire (VC44),
Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57), East Kent (VC15), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sutherland (VC107),
Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31),
Merionethshire (VC48), Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Devon (VC4), North Essex (VC19),
North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), Northamptonshire (VC32), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Devon (VC3), South Essex (VC18), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8),
Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Kent (VC16), West Lancashire (VC60), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland,
French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania,
Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland
and Ukraine. Also recorded in Near East (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:
|Achrysocharoides butus (Walker, 1839)
|Achrysocharoides cilla (Walker, 1839)
|Achrysocharoides splendens (Delucchi, 1954)
|Chrysocharis laomedon (Walker, 1839)
|Chrysocharis nephereus (Walker, 1839)
|Chrysocharis submutica Graham 1963
stylata Förster, 1862
braconius Haliday, 1833
|Pholetesor bicolor (Nees, 1834)
|Rhysipolis hariolator (Haliday, 1836)
|Scambus inanis (Schrank, 1802)