The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phyllonorycter cavella (Zeller, 1846)
[Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae]

Gold Birch Midget


Lithocolletis cavella Zeller, 1846. Linn. Ent. 1: 213, t. 1 fig. 19.
Phyllonorycter cavella
(Zeller, 1846).


Leaf-miner: A large mine, 15-20 mm long, more than six creases, in the lower epidermis (British leafminers).

Relatively large, lower-surface tentiform mine; epidermis rather strongly folded. Pupa in the mine, in a white cocoon (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).

Larvae with an orange-yellow spot dorsally on the sixth abdominal segment (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).

Cremaster exceptionally long and (see from the side) flat (Gregor and Patocka, 2001a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Adult: The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Betulaceae        
Betula       Pitkin & Plant
Betula       British leafminers
Betula pendula Silver Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Rosacae        
Prunus cerasus Dwarf Cherry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant

Hosts elsewhere:

Betulaceae        
Betula pendula Silver Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Betula pubescens Downy Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - larvae: September - October (British leafminers).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Anglesey (VC52), Bedfordshire (VC30), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57), East Suffolk (VC25), Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Merionethshire (VC48), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Hampshire (VC12), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN Gateway).

See also British leafminers distribution map.

NBN Grid Map:

NBN Grid Map

Phyllonorycter cavella
NBN Grid Map : NBN Terms and Conditions

Maps are only displayed if the NBN server is active. N.B. Only publicly available records, if any, are shown by default

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania, Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central, East, North, Northwesy, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine and Yugoslavia. Also recorded in East Palaearctic (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:

Betula pendula, Betula pubescens

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea  
Achrysocharoides cilla (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Achrysocharoides niveipes (Thomson, 1878) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis laomedon (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis nephereus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Pediobius alcaeus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cirrospilus diallus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Sympiesis gordius (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Baryscapus nigroviolaceus (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Coloneura stylata Förster, 1862 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Colastes braconius Haliday, 1833 Braconidae: Exothecinae
Pholetesor circumscriptus (Nees, 1834) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Scambus calobatus (Gravenhorst, 1829) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae


External links: Search the internet:

Belgian Lepidoptera
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Gateway
NHM UK Checklist
UKMoths

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Last updated 19-Sep-2016  Brian Pitkin Top of page