mine is small, usually in lobe of leaf, causing the lobe to fold
small, lower surface tentiform mine. The mine lies often under a
leaf segment, and when the mine develops and contracts the segment
usually folds down over the mine. The larva also feeds upon the
palisade parenchyma of the roof of the mine, causing the upper surface
of the leaf to appear damaged. Pupa blackish brown in a tight, thin-walled
cocoon that is attached to the floor of the mine; all frass is accumulated
in the opposite corner of the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The cremaster has four hooks (British
leafminers). The pupa is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July and more commonly in September and October
of year - adults: The adults emerge in two generations, in May
and August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in England and Wales,
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Breconshire (VC42), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), Derbyshire (VC57),
East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36),
Huntingdonshire (VC31), Leicestershire (VC55), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Radnorshire (VC43), South Devon (VC3),
South Essex (VC18), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17),
Warwickshire (VC38), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland,
French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Republic of
Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central and South, Slovakia,
Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine, Yugoslavia. Also
recorded in Near East (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:
acerianus Askew, 1974
|Achrysocharoides cilla (Walker, 1839)
|Chrysocharis elongata (Thomson, 1878)
|Chrysocharis laomedon (Walker, 1839)
|Chrysocharis nephereus (Walker, 1839)
lyncus Walker, 1841
|| Eulophidae: Eulophinae
|Sympiesis gordius (Walker, 1839)
stylata Förster, 1862
braconius Haliday, 1833
|Pholetesor bicolor (Nees, 1834)
|Pholetesor laetus (Marshall, 1885)
|Diadegma holopygum (Thomson, 1887)