The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Parornix torquillella (Zeller, 1850)
[Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae]

Blackthorn Slender


Ornix torquillella Zeller, 1850. Stett. ent. Zeit. 11: 161.
Deltaornix torquillella
(Zeller, 1850)
Parornix torquillella
(Zeller, 1850).


Leaf-miner: The initial mine is a blotch type. It then leaves this and makes folds on the leaf edge. The mine looks similar to Parornix finitimella and the larvae should be examined for identification of the mine. D. torquilella has legs concolorous with the body, whereas P. finitimella has black ringed legs (British leafminers, as Deltaornix torquillella).

The mine begins as a lower-surface epidermal gallery that widens into a blotch. Finally it becomes a small, only weakly inflated tentiform mine, quadrangular of triangular when it lies in a vein axil. The lower epidermis is whitish, unfolded, and rather transparent. The leaf tissue is eaten up to the upper epidermis. Frass packed in a corner of the mine. The older larva leaves the mine, then lives free under a leaf tip or margin that has been folded downwards, or in a leaf that is rolled into a pod (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).

Yellowish white/green; head light brown. Contrary to P. finitimella, living on the same hostplant, the rear margin of the head does not bear four patches, but two (sometimes indistinct), and the legs are not black, but yellowish green (Emmet, 1982a; Emmet, Watkinson and Wilson, 1985a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).

Pupation in a cocoon under the folded edge of leaf (British leafminers, as Deltaornix torquillella).

Adult: The adult is illustrated in UKMoths (as Deltaornix torquillella). The male and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Rosaceae        
Prunus domestica Wild Plum British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers, as Deltaornix torquillella
Prunus domestica Wild Plum British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant, as Deltaornix torquillella
Prunus spinosa Blackthorn British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers, as Deltaornix torquillella
Prunus spinosa Blackthorn British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Pitkin & Plant, as Deltaornix torquillella
Prunus spinosa Blackthorn British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. UKMoths, as Deltaornix torquillella

Hosts elsewhere:

Rosaceae        
Prunus cerasus Dwarf Cherry British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Prunus domestica Wild Plum British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Prunus domestica subsp. insititia Bullace  

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Prunus institia

Prunus maritima     Bladmineerders van Europa
Prunus spinosa Blackthorn British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - larvae: July to September (British leafminers, as Deltaornix torquillella).

Time of year - adults: The moths fly from May to July, and sometimes are attracted to light (UKMoths, as Deltaornix torquillella).

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Anglesey (VC52), Bedfordshire (VC30), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), Derbyshire (VC57), East Cornwall (VC2), East Gloucestershire (VC33), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sutherland (VC107), Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Kincardineshire (VC91), Merionethshire (VC48), Middlesex (VC21), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Northamptonshire (VC32), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Cornwall (VC1), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN Gateway).

See also British leafminers distribution map (as Deltaornix torquillella).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map as Deltaornix torquillella.

NBN Grid Map:

NBN Grid Map

Parornix torquillella
NBN Grid Map : NBN Terms and Conditions

Maps are only displayed if the NBN server is active. N.B. Only publicly available records, if any, are shown by default

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Corsica, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Macedonia, Republic of Moldova, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia - Central and South, Sicily, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Ukraine (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in the Near East (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:

Prunus cerasus, Prunus domestica, Prunus domestica subsp. insititia, Prunus spinosa

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea  
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Pholetesor arisba (Nixon, 1973) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Pholetesor circumscriptus (Nees, 1834) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Rhysipolis hariolator (Haliday, 1836) Braconidae: Rhysipolinae
Diadegma elishae (Bridgman, 1884) Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Diadegma stigmatellae Horstmann, 1980 Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Encrateola laevigata (Ratzeburg, 1848) Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae
Scambus inanis (Schrank, 1802) Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae


External links: Search the internet:
Belgian Lepidoptera
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Gateway
NHM UK Checklist, as Deltaornix torquillella
UKMoths
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Last updated 22-Jul-2016  Brian Pitkin Top of page