Leaf-miner: Early mine a blotch with lower and upper epidermis turning brown.
Then either a fold at the leaf edge, or a mine resembling that of
a Phyllonorycter, but formed by a silken pad on the underside (British
mine begins with a lower-surface epidermal corridor, but soon the
larva starts feeding on the sponge parenchyma. The mine then becomes
a flat lower-surface blotch. Silk, deposited in the mine causes
the lower epidermis to pucker ligtly. The lower (later also the
upper) epidermis of the mine is greyish brown to brown. After leaving
the mine the larva lives freely under a folded leaf margin, or in
a fold at the underside of the leaf, in its centre, that is covered
with silk (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Greenish white; head light brown with a pair of brown spots (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
In folded leaf-edge, usually on ground (British
by Patocka (2001b), Patocka and Turcani (2005a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male
and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, August and September (British
leafminers). See also British
leafminers distribution map.
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Banffshire (VC94), Bedfordshire (VC30), Breconshire (VC42), Caernarvonshire (VC49),
Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sutherland (VC107),
Easterness (VC96), Elgin, Glamorganshire (VC41), Kincardineshire (VC91), Merionethshire (VC48), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Devon (VC4), North Ebudes (VC104), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6),
Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Devon (VC3), South Essex (VC18), South Wiltshire (VC8),
Staffordshire (VC39), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Lancashire (VC60), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland
(Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belarus, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia,
Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian
mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Republic of Moldova, Norwegian mainland,
Poland, Romania, Russia - Central, East, North, Northwest and South,
Sardinia, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands
and Ukraine. Also recorded in East Palaearctic (Karsholt and van
Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: