Leaf-miner: Early mine a blotch with upper epidermis turning brown. Then
a fold at the leaf edge or tip of the leaf. Often two or three folds
can be seen (British
a small lower-surface epidermal corridor with reddish brown frass,
a small rectangular full depth blotch with black frass later. Lower,
later also the upper, epidermis brown. The larva deposits only little
silk in the mine, that therefore remains practically flat. Finally
the larva leaves the mine and continues living free under a folded
leaf margin or leaf tip (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
In folded leaf-edge, often on a Fallén leaf (British
The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The male and female
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July; September (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Southern England and Wales including
Bedfordshire (VC30), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Carmarthenshire (VC44), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), North Somerset (VC6), South Hampshire (VC11),
South Wiltshire (VC8), West Norfolk (VC28) and West Suffolk (VC26) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland,
French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Macedonia,
Poland, Romania, Russia - South, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland,
The Netherlands, Ukraine and Yugoslavia (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: