Leaf-miner: Early mine a squarish or triangular blotch with brownish lower
epidermis. Thereafter two or three successive folds formed by folding
the leaf margin upwards (British
rectangular mine between two side veins (triangular when in a vein
axil). The lower epidermis is brown. The larva begins feeding in
the spongy parenchyma. Later also the palissade parenchyma along
the outline of the mine is consumed. Finally all palissade parenchyma
is eaten away, and the mine has become full depth and very transparant.
Most frass in a cormer of the mine. After leaving the mine the larva
lives in a rolled leaf margin. Here also pupation takes place (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
In folded leaf-edge, usually on ground (British
leafminers). The pupa is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, September (British
of year - adults: Two generations, firstly in May and again
in August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Relatively common wherever its
foodplant is found (UKMoths).
Widespread in Britain including Bedfordshire (VC30), Breconshire (VC42), Buckinghamshire (VC24),
Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Carmarthenshire (VC44), Cheshire (VC58), Derbyshire (VC57),
East Cornwall (VC2), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sutherland (VC107),
Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31),
Merionethshire (VC48), Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Devon (VC4), North Ebudes (VC104), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6),
Radnorshire (VC43), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Devon (VC3), South Essex (VC18),
South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17),
Warwickshire (VC38), West Cornwall (VC1), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Lancashire (VC60), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt
and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland,
Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland,
Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norwegian mainland,
Poland, Romania, Russia - Central, East, Northwest and South, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine. Also recorded
in Near East (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: