small Phyllonorycter-like mine initially, but with brown
rather than green lower epidermis. Later in one or more successive
cones formed by folding downwards the edge or tip of a leaf (British
mine begins as an inconspicuous lower surface corridor, mainly recognisable
by its brown line of frass. In the next larval stage a lower-surface
blotch is made, that soon develops into a tentiform mine; its epidermis
turns brown. Frass in a clump in a corner of the mine. After leaving
the mine the larva continues feeding in a downwards folded leaf
margin, that is fixed with silk (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
In folded leaf-edge (British
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths and the Encyclopedia
of Life. The male
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: June, September-October (British
leafminers) and are commonest on birch seedlings (UKMoths).
of year - adults: The adults fly in May and August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Common throughout the British
Isles, in heaths and open woodland (UKMoths)
including Anglesey (VC52), Banffshire (VC94), Bedfordshire (VC30), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Caernarvonshire (VC49),
Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57), East Cornwall (VC2),
East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36),
Huntingdonshire (VC31), Merionethshire (VC48), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), South Northumberland (VC67), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Devon (VC3), South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8),
South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Gloucestershire (VC34),
West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Ireland's NBDC interactive map).
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French
mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania,
Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central, East, North,
Northwest and South, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands
and Ukraine, Also recorded in East Palaearctic (Karsholt and van
Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: