Leaf-miner: In a small Phyllonorycter-like mine initially, but with brown
rather than green lower epidermis. Later in two or more successive
cones formed by folding leaf-lobes downwards (British
mine begins at a flat, iridescent egg shell. It starts as an epidermal
corridor, widening into (and mostly over run by) a shallow lower
surface blotch in the tip of a leaf segment. The lower epidermis
is off-grey with small light brown spots at first, but soon turns
brown. Silk is deposited within the mine, causing it to contract.
This wrinkles the lower epidermis, but there are no clear folds
formed. Soon the larva starts consuming the palissade parenchyma,
and the upperside of the mine than turns brown as well. Frass in
loose grains. After some time the larva leaves its mine and continues
living free under a downfolded leaf segment, kept in place by some
spinning. Here too the leaf tissue is consumed up to the palissade
parenchyma, browning the leaf (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
In a folded leaf edge or on leaf-litter (British
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July; August-September (British
of year - adults: The adult moths are on the wing in two generations,
during April and May and again in August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Very common throughout the British
including Anglesey (VC52), Ayrshire (VC74), Bedfordshire (VC30), Breconshire (VC42), Buckinghamshire (VC24),
Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Carmarthenshire (VC44), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50),
Derbyshire (VC57), East Cornwall (VC2), East Gloucestershire (VC33), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Ross (VC106), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20),
Huntingdonshire (VC31), Isle of Wight (VC10), Kincardineshire (VC91), Linlithgow, Merionethshire (VC48),
Mid-west Yorkshire (VC64), Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Devon (VC4), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7),
Pembrokeshire (VC45), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Devon (VC3), South Essex (VC18),
South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), South Somerset (VC5), South Wiltshire (VC8),
Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Cornwall (VC1), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16) and West Lancaster (NBN
Gateway), the Channel Is.
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern
Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Corsica,
Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland,
Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg,
Macedonia, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania,
Russia - Central and North, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia, Sweden,
Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine and Yugoslavia. Also recorded
in Near East and Nearctic region (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: