Leaf-miner: The mine begins as a tiny, lower-surface epidermal corridor. Only
after the first moult the larva starts feeding on the leaf parenchyma.
The first result is a corridor overlying the midrib. From here branches
enter the leaf disk; gradually they widen and merge, laeving in
the end almost the entire leaf mined out. Almost all frass is ejected.
The larva can leave its mine and make a new one elsewhere. Pupation
witin the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Golden or greenish yellow (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The pupa is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The male
genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae:
July; hibernating from September - April (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Bedfordshire (VC30),
Cambridgeshire (VC29), East Kent (VC15), North Hampshire (VC12), South Wiltshire and
Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
Gateway). See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Corsica, Czech Republic, Danish mainland,
Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland,
Latvia, Lithuania, Republic of Moldova, Norwegian mainland, Poland,
Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia - Central, Northwest and South,
Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands,
Ukraine and Yugoslavia (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: