larva feeds within the needle from the tip to base (British
mine begins in the tip of a needle, and descends to about three
quarter of its length. With the exception of the larval chamber
the entire mine is filled with frass, giving the needle a vinous
colour. The mine is so transparant the the larva is visible in its
chamber (Hering, 1957a). The full grown larva leaves the mine by
making an opening, then forms an elongate cocoon out of silk between
a few spun needles (Koch, 1932a; Freeman, 1960a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in British
leafminers and (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Pupation in a white cocoon between spun needles (British
leafminers). The pupa is also illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths by Rob Edmunds.
genitalia, but not the male genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
According to Hering (1957a) the species also lives on Juniperus
albeit rarely. In the light of the strongly different leaf morphology
this seems improbable. Also references to Abies alba and
Picea abies seem doubtful.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: April - May (British
of year - adults: The adult moths fly during June and July (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: The distribution of this species
is not fully understood due to confusion with the very similar Ocnerostoma
friesei, but is believed to be relatively widespread in
much of England and Scotland (UKMoths)
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Cheshire (VC58), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Easterness (VC96),
Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Kincardineshire (VC91), North Essex (VC19), North Somerset (VC6),
North Wiltshire (VC7), Shropshire (VC40), Staffordshire (VC39), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26),
Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia,
Finland, French mainland, Germany, Italian mainland, Kaliningrad
Region, Latvia, Luxembourg, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania,
Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands
(Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: