narrow gallery, often following the midrib, occasionally tinged
red at the edges. This leads to a yellowish blotch containing dispersed
oval, iridescent egg is deposited at the upperside of the leaf,
mostly close to the midrib. Here starts a gallery, at first narrow
and hardly widening, the first cm not always full depth, often making
a few loops around the egg and/or running along the midrib for some
distance. Parts of the leaf cut off by a corridor loop often turn
red. Frass in small, grey grains, dispersed, not glued to floor
or ceiling of the mine. Later the larva makes a full depth blotch;
mostly in continuation to the corridor, but the larva can also leave
the mine and restart elsewhere, which may happen already at this
stage. A new mine begins with a hole where tha larva has gained
entrance, end ends in an untidy exit. The larva lies venter-upwards
in the mine. Pupation external (Bladmineerders van Europa).
mine is also illustrated in UKMoths.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
On the ground amongst detritus (British
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths and the Encyclopedia
of Life. The male
genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: June - July, September (British
of year - adults: Two generations in the year, flying during
May and again in August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Occurs over much of mainland
including Anglesey (VC52), Banffshire (VC94), Bedfordshire (VC30), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Caernarvonshire (VC49),
Cambridgeshire (VC29), Carmarthenshire (VC44), Cheshire (VC58), Cumberland (VC70), Denbighshire (VC50),
Derbyshire (VC57), East Cornwall (VC2), East Gloucestershire (VC33), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Ross (VC106), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sussex (VC14), East Sutherland (VC107),
Easterness (VC96), Edinburgh, Elgin, Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Kincardineshire (VC91), Leicestershire (VC55), Linlithgow, Mid-west Yorkshire (VC64), Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Devon (VC4),
North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), North-east Yorkshire (VC62), North-west Yorkshire (VC65), Northamptonshire (VC32), Nottinghamshire (VC56),
Pembrokeshire (VC45), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Devon (VC3), South Essex (VC18),
South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancaster and South Wiltshire (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt
and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea) See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland,
French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central,
East, North and Northwest, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands
and Ukraine (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: