and bark miner:
Mining the stems and later the leaves (UKMoths).
larva lives as a bark miner in late summer and autumn. It descends
into the rootstock for hibernation. After hibernation large, lower
surface blotch mines are made in the lower leaves, from a gallery
in the bark. They start in the base of the leaf, and are centered
over the midrib. The mine contains hardly any frass. The larva can
make several mines. Sometimes several larvae in a mine. Pupation
in the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Yellowish white; head, prothoracic and anal plate light brown (Koster,
2002b; Koster and Sinev, 2003a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
The male and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae:
Early spring, up to April (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults: Flying at night, and attracted to light, the
adults can be found on the wing between May and August (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Occurs widely throughout much
of Britain (UKMoths)
including Anglesey (VC52), Bedfordshire (VC30), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50),
East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), Hertfordshire (VC20),
Huntingdonshire (VC31), Middlesex (VC21), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Shropshire (VC40), South Lancashire (VC59), South Somerset (VC5),
South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Warwickshire (VC38), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, French mainland,
Germany, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia,
Poland, Romania, Russia - Central, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden,
Switzerland, The Netherlands and Ukraine (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: