Leaf-miner: A narrow contorted gallery leading to a whitish blotch with scattered
frass centrally. The early gallery can merge with the blotch and
there are often several to a leaf (British
larva begins by making a full depth corridor, erratic in width and
course; frass black, in an irregular central line. Later the larva
makes a blotch, with frass in irregular clouds. This blotch can
be a continuation of the corridor, but may just as well be on a
different leaf. Often several mines in a leaf; in such cases the
entire leaf me be mined out. Mines white at first, turning brown
later. The larva lies venter-upwards in the mine. Pupation external Bladmineerders van Europa).
mine is also illustrated in UKMoths.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is light yellow, with darker thoracic legs (British
leafminers). The larva is also illustrated
in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Occasionally in a mined leaf or in a cocoon between the leaves or
on the leaves (British
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths and the Encyclopedia
of Life. The female
genitalia, but not the male genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: June - July (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Distributed locally in southern
and western England and Wales, there are also scattered records
from further north (UKMoths)
including Anglesey (VC52), Bedfordshire (VC30), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29),
Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57), East Kent (VC15), Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41),
Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Leicestershire (VC55), Merionethshire (VC48), Middlesex (VC21),
Monmouthshire (VC35), Montgomeryshire (VC47), North Devon (VC4), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), Radnorshire (VC43), Shropshire (VC40), South Essex (VC18), South Lancashire (VC59),
South Somerset (VC5), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39),
Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Cornwall (VC1), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in Republic of Ireland (UKMoths;
Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland,
Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland,
Latvia, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Russia - Central,
Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands
and Ukraine (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: