Gall-former: A gall in petiole or midrib leads to an oval blotch then cut-out
at base of leaf (British
larva bores in the petiole, or even in the bark of a twig. Its activity
causes the petiole to swell gall-like. When almost full grown the
larva moves through the midrib a short distance into the blade.
Here a small blotch is made, from which an oval excision is cut,
of c. 2-3 x 4-5 mm. Thus sandwiched it drops to the ground and pupates,
awaiting hibernation (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The biology and morphology of all stages are extensively discussed
by Prota (1962a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The male
and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: June - July (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Bedfordshire (VC30),
Buckinghamshire (VC24), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Carmarthenshire (VC44),
Cheshire (VC58), Derbyshire (VC57), East Norfolk (VC27), East Ross (VC106), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sussex (VC14), East Sutherland (VC107), Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Kincardineshire (VC91),
Merionethshire (VC48), North Devon (VC4), North Ebudes (VC104), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12),
North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Northamptonshire (VC32), Shropshire (VC40), South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38),
West Norfolk (VC28), West Ross, West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belarus, Belgium, Corsica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland,
Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland,
Kaliningrad Region, Latvia, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland,
Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia - North and Northwest, Sicily,
Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Ukraine (Karsholt
and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.