Leaf-miner: A linear track widens to blotch, frass in long threads (British
generally starting not far from the midrib, at a conspicuous, yellowish
oviposition scar, suddenly and somewhat angular widening into a
full depth blotch. Often the corridor is overtaken by the blotch,
but it remains recognisable in the frass pattern. Frass in long
threads. Pupation in the ground (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
white, gut-line green (British
leafminers). The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
The male genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: June - August (British
of year - adults: Flying from late April into May and can be
netted during the day flying around the foodplant (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Locally but well distributed
throughout Britain (UKMoths)
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29),
Cheshire (VC58), Derbyshire (VC57), East Gloucestershire (VC33), East Ross (VC106), East Suffolk (VC25),
Easterness (VC96), Elgin, Glamorganshire (VC41), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Essex (VC19), Northamptonshire (VC32),
Pembrokeshire (VC45), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17),
Warwickshire (VC38), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland,
French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Kaliningrad
Region, Latvia, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania,
Russia - Central and South, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands
and Ukraine (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: