larvae feed among the needles, mining when small, and later in an
untidy spinning (UKMoths).
larva completely mines a group of c. 15 needles. The larva penetrates
the base of the needles. Most frass is deposited outside the mines.
The mined needles are surrounded by a light spinning, especially
around their bases and therefore do not drop quickly. Pupation external
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Larva light brown or dirty white with two reddish brown subrosal
lines. Head and pronotum dark brown, anal plate greyish brown. Prolegs
with c. 20 crochets in a single row (Bradley et al., 1979a; Swatschek,
1958a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths and the Encyclopedia
of Life. The male
and female genitalia, are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae:
August - October; hibernation as a full fed larva (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults: The moths fly in May and June and are attracted
to light (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Occupying woodland, the species
is fairly common throughout the British Isles (UKMoths)
including Anglesey (VC52), Bedfordshire (VC30), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29),
Derbyshire (VC57), East Cornwall (VC2), East Norfolk (VC27), East Ross (VC106), East Suffolk (VC25),
East Sutherland (VC107), Easterness (VC96), Elgin, Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Kincardineshire (VC91),
Merionethshire (VC48), Montgomeryshire (VC47), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Essex (VC19), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), South Northumberland (VC67), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), West Gloucestershire (VC34),
West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
Gateway) and the Channel Is. and Ireland (Karsholt and van
Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Ireland's NBDC interactive map).
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Czech Republic,
Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek
mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central,
North and Northwest, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland and
The Netherlands. Also recorded in the East Palaearctic (Karsholt
and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:
evanescens Westwood, 1833
|Therophilus clausthalianus (Ratzeburg, 1852)
|Meteorus ictericus (Nees, 1811)
|Choeras tedellae (Nixon, 1961)
|Dolichogenidea lineipes (Wesmael, 1837)
|Coleocentrus excitator (Poda, 1761)
|Lissonota buccator (Thunberg, 1822)
|Lissonota dubia Holmgren, 1856
|Lissonota folii Thomson, 1877
|Glypta tenuicornis Thomson, 1889
|Diadegma consumtor (Gravenhorst, 1829)
|Porizon transfuga (Gravenhorst, 1829)
|Exochus tibialis Holmgren, 1858
|Itoplectis alternans (Gravenhorst, 1829)
|Itoplectis maculator (Fabricius, 1775)