The larva mines about five needles completely out, moving from one
needle to the other by way of a silken tube along the twig. Most
frass remains in the tube. The larva mines all its life. Pupation
external, often in the tube (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Off white to brownish, head, pronotum and thoracic feet black. Prolegs
with c. 22 crochets in a single row. Anal comb absent (Bradley et
al., 1979a; Swatschek, 1958a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths by Adriaan Peeters. The male
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae:
Autumn until April or May (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including Bedfordshire (VC30),
Cambridgeshire (VC29), Derbyshire (VC57), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25),
Glamorganshire (VC41), North Essex (VC19), North Somerset (VC6), Shropshire (VC40), Staffordshire (VC39), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish
mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian
mainland, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Norwegian
mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central, North and Northwest,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands.
Also recorded in East Palaearctic and Nearctic region (Karsholt
and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:
|Dolichogenidea lineipes (Wesmael, 1837)
|Glypta tenuicornis Thomson, 1889
|Enytus apostatus (Gravenhorst, 1829)
|Hyposoter boops (Thomson, 1887)
|Hyposoter brischkei (Bridgman, 1882)
|Hyposoter clausus (Brischke, 1880)
|Enclisis vindex (Tschek, 1871)
|Gelis areator (Panzer, 1804)
|Phaeogenes planifrons Wesmael, 1845
|Tycherus suspicax (Wesmael, 1845)
|Exochus tibialis Holmgren, 1858
|Hypsicera curvator (Fabricius, 1793)
|Triclistus niger (Bridgman, 1883)
|Zatypota percontatoria (Müller, 1776)