Egg generally at the upperside of the tip of a needle. The larva
spins a number of needles together in a more or less conical spinning,
then mines out one needle after the other. The larva enters and
leaves a needle through the same opening, mostly in the distal half
of the needle. Most frass is ejected, part of it is trapped in the
spinning. During feeding the larva pauses to rest in the mine. Most
mines in the older needles. Pupation external (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Body light green; head, pronotum and anal plate light brown; anal
comb present, brown, with 4-7 prongs; thoracic legs green; pinacula
brown (Bradley et al., 1979a; Patocka, 1960a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male
genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae:
August - October; overwintering as larva, pupating in spring (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including
Bedfordshire (VC30), Herefordshire (VC36), Kincardineshire (VC91), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), Shropshire (VC40),
South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Hampshire (VC11), South Wiltshire (VC8), Stafford and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish
mainland, French mainland, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland,
Latvia, Luxembourg, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands
(Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: