mine formed is long, inflated and puckers the leaf surface. The
larva often swaps leaves (British
generally at the underside of the top half of the leaf. Between
September and the end of February a very narrow mine is made, not
longer than 3 cm, parallel to the midrib. The mine then suddenly
widens to almost the full width of the leaf. The frass is concentrated
in the transition area of the two mine types. In the broad part
folds develop. Larvae can make a new mine, obviously without the
initial part. Here the frass in concentrated around the entrance
hole. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Head pale honey coloured, mouth-parts a little darker; prothorcic
and anal plates and thoracic legs likewise; body greenish black
(Langmaid, 2007a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: September - June (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Occurs in South West England,
from Monmouth in Wales and the East of Scotland (British
leafminers) including Caernarvonshire (VC49), Derbyshire (VC57), Easterness (VC96),
Herefordshire (VC36), Kincardineshire (VC91), Leicestershire (VC55), Merionethshire (VC48), Monmouthshire (VC35),
North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Devon (VC4), Northamptonshire (VC32), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Hampshire (VC11), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), West Gloucestershire (VC34) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Ireland's NBDC interactive map).
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Continental Europe including Romania (Karsholt and
van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea), Germany and The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: