Leaf-miner: Generally the mine is the full width of the leaf (as shown) and extends from the leaf tip. It is white and the frass is scattered (British
spring a short corridor is made that is almost stuffed with frass.
After hibernation this mine is vacated, and the larva then makes
a number of elongated blotches, all descending from the leaf tip.
These latter mines are whitish, with irregularly scattered frass
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
Mine of Elachista humilis on Brachypodium sylvaticum
Image: © Tony Davis (British
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Lemon yellow, dull yellowish to greenish yellow with a lighter mid-dorsal
line; head light brown. According to Hering (1957a) the prothoracic
plate has a darker centre (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male
and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Deschampsia cespitosa is the main host plant; the other host
plants on the list are not all equally trustworthy because of possible
confusion with Elachista canapennella (Traugott-Olsen and
Nielsen, 1977a) (Bladmineerders van Europa)
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: March-May (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Bedfordshire (VC30),
Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57),
East Suffolk (VC25), Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Huntingdonshire (VC31),
Kincardineshire (VC91), Merionethshire (VC48), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Hampshire (VC12), North Wiltshire (VC7), North-east Yorkshire (VC62), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), West Gloucestershire (VC34) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
and the Channel Is. (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French
mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norwegian
mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central and North, Slovakia,
Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: